Various battery performances and their application sub-scenarios you must know

The breakthrough in batteries has been praised by many, and in order to attract the attention of the media and consumers, various new super batteries are emerging one after another. However, the battery industry should be rational, and the following article helps you understand the many capabilities of batteries and their limitations by focusing on their reliability, economy, longevity, and safety.

The breakthrough in batteries has been praised by many, and in order to attract the attention of the media and consumers, various new super batteries are emerging one after another. However, the battery industry should be rational, and the following article helps you understand the many capabilities of batteries and their limitations by focusing on their reliability, economy, longevity, and safety.

Various battery performances and their application sub-scenarios you must know

Tractor battery

Wheelchairs, motorcycles and golf cars mostly use lead-acid batteries. Although lead acid is heavy, it works reasonably well and can be converted to other systems with only modest adjustments.

While lithium-ion batteries are more expensive than lead-acid batteries, they have lower cycle costs due to their longer lifespan, and another advantage over lead and nickel batteries is low maintenance. Lithium-ion batteries can be used in any state of charge without adverse effects, in contrast to nickel-cadmium (NiCd) and nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries that occasionally require a full discharge to prevent them from developing memory, and lead-acid batteries that require Saturated charge to prevent sulfates.

In addition, forklifts also use lead-acid batteries more often. For forklifts, prolonged charging is bad for warehouses, which operate 24 hours a day. There are also forklifts equipped with fuel cells that charge the battery while the vehicle is in motion, and demand for fuel cells is slowly rising despite their poor power delivery.

In theory, the heavier the wheeled mechanical vehicle, the less suitable battery applications are, but that doesn’t stop engineers from working on large battery systems to replace polluting internal combustion engines. Such as automated guided vehicle (AGV) systems in ship ports. AGVs operate 24 hours a day, and the vehicle cannot be tied down by long charging intervals because lithium-ion batteries partially solve this problem, replacing the 10-ton, faster-charging batteries with lighter, faster-charging batteries. 300kWh oversized lead-acid batteries, but still have certain limitations due to weight, charging time and infrastructure constraints.

Various battery performances and their application sub-scenarios you must know

super battery for submarine

For large traction systems, there is currently no economical battery solution, and the burning of fossil fuels cannot be completely avoided. Modern lithium-ion batteries can provide about 150Wh/kg of energy, while the net calorific value (NCV) of fossil fuels exceeds 12,000wh/kg. From this point of view, the energy of batteries is negligible compared to fossil fuels. But it should be admitted that under the trend of energy saving and emission reduction, the application of batteries will still increase.

Aviation battery

The role of the battery on the aircraft is to power the navigation and emergency systems in the event of an auxiliary power unit (APU) shutdown or in-flight emergency. At this time, the battery provides power for braking, ground operation and starting the APU. If the engine fails, the battery must be able to provide energy for 30 minutes to 3 hours. Each aircraft must have enough battery power for the aircraft to land safely. During flight, electricity is provided by a generator, and the onboard batteries can be disconnected if required.

Most commercial airliners are flooded with nickel-cadmium batteries. Smaller planes usually use lead-acid batteries. Although lead acid is heavier than nickel cadmium, it also requires less maintenance. Modern jet fighters use lithium-ion batteries to spool their jet engines, as does the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. As onboard functions move from hydraulics to electric, aircraft require larger batteries, which are better met by high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries than nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries. But unexpected lithium-ion battery failures could have serious consequences, prompting aircraft manufacturers to return to nickel-cadmium batteries. It is undeniable that all batteries may fail. In fact, there are reports of thermal failure of nickel-cadmium alloys, and many companies’ excessive pursuit of lithium-ion battery energy density and neglect of safety are the most important reasons for battery failure. .

Various battery performances and their application sub-scenarios you must know

jet fighter

While there are many different batteries on an airplane, their only purpose is to start the engine and provide backup power when the engine is off. Large planes will continue to fly on fossil fuels because batteries cannot yet be used for propulsion. Small battery-powered aircraft are being tried for pilot training and short-hop flights, but these are currently only experimental.

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